Characteristics of Woody Stems Lab | Thumb Wrestling Infographic | Monocot and Dicot Lab | Characteristics of life lab | Cheek Cell | Onion Cell | Cell Transport Lab- | Plant cell model | Protists Lab | Cell Size Lab | Catalase Lab | How many drops of water can fit on a penny? | Light Intensity Activity | Chromatography Lab Members
Sarah J
Sarah H
Logan B
Paul B

Characteristics of Woody Stems Lab



  1. The age of our twigs are 5 yrs. because there are five sections within the twig. (both groups are 5 yrs.)
  2. Each year it appears that each section grows less, so now the growth rate does not appear to be the same.
  3. It is growing less each year because it is growing farther out from the main system of water and nutrients, so it doesn’t grow as much as it first started.
  4. There are two leaf scars per node.
  5. Our leaf arrangement on the twig is opposite.
  6. There around 2 nodes per growing season.
  7. It appears that the same number of nodes are produced each growing season.
  8. It appears that each leaf scar has the same number of 7 bundle scars, and the arrangement is the same.
  9. There is not much of a specific form and their location is in the internode.

10. The function of the lenticels is to allow gas exchange between air and the inner tissues of the branch

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Thumb Wrestling Infographic



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Monocot and Dicot Lab

Corn Seed:
Yes, you are able to find young leafs in this seed. There is only one leaf visible though.
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Bean Seed:
We are not able to open another corn seed like we did to the bean seed because the corn seed is a monocot meaning that it only has one part and that one part contains as a whole piece. The bean seed is a dicot.

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Split Pea:
The split pea is a dicot. We believe this because it's name is split pea inferring that it was able to be split at one point in time and once had two parts.

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Stem slides:
The difference between a monocot and dicot stems are that monocot stems the vascular tissues are scattered throughout the stem and dicot stems the vascular tissues are in a ring on the stem. The two tissues are xylem and phloem. The functions of xylem are to carry nutrients, water and minerals up the stem whereas the phloem is responsible for carrying sugar (glucose) down the stem.

Monocot:
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Dicot:

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Herbaceous and woody stems:
A herbaceous stem has little woody tissue or none at all. They usually are green and are covered in by a thin epidermis. They die down at the end of the growing season then grow again from seeds. A woody stem is a stem that has been growing for two years or more like a tree trunk.


Examples woody monocots:

Redwood, aloes

Examples woody dicots:

Trees, weeping fig, allamanda


Examples of herbaceous monocots:

Irises, banana

Examples of herbaceous dicots:

Peonies, cosmos

Characteristics of life lab


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Flask A and Flask B didn’t change and Flask C’s test tube turned from blue to yellow. Flask C also started to get really bubbly/foamy.

Analysis/Conclusion:
  1. The bromothymol blue changed colors when a classmate exhaled into the test tube because Brandon blew carbon dioxide into the flask, which is acidic.
  2. The production of carbon dioxide gas in the one flask indicates that when yeast mixes with water and molasses it becomes acidic.
  3. We can be sure that the yeast produced the carbon dioxide gas because when Brandon blew carbon dioxide into the bromothymol blue it turned yellow meaning it was acidic. The mixture of molasses, yeast and water turned yellow meaning it was acidic as well.
  4. The presence of the buds indicated that yeast was growing in order for it to reproduce.
  5. More buds were present in Flask C because the yeast was feeding off of the molasses because it’s a type of sugar.


Cheek Cell


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This is an example of a cheek cell and the darker blue particles that are around the cell are food particles. The cheek cell has a cytoplasm, cell membrane, and nucleus.

1. This is a human cheek cell. It's shape/arrangement is circular because it is classified in the animal cell category because we are mammals.
2. The purpose of methylene blue was to make it more visible to the human eye. If you wouldn't put the methylene blue than it would of been harder to see the cell itself as well as the food particles that you could see.
3. The size of the cell is 75 um.

Onion Cell

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This is a red onion cell with Lugol's iodine on it. There are four parts that are visible in this cell, they include the cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, and cytoplasm.

The size of the regular onion cell with no salt water concentration added to it was 150 um on low power. .

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This is a red onion cell that has a concentrated salt solution added to it. Many changes were made, such as how the water escaped the water vacuole and the cell membrane shrunk. Notice how the cell wall stayed the same. It stayed the same size because its stable and can with hold the pressure.

The size of the shriveled up onion cell on low power is 115 um.



1. The shape of onion cells are rectangular and the arrangement of the cells are more compressed and closer together.
2. When concentrated salt solution was added to the cells the water left the inside of the cell causing the vacuole to collapse and the membrane to shrink while the cell wall maintained its normal size. We think this happened because the hypertonic solution causes water to be drawn into the solution outside of the cell through osmosis.

Cell Transport Lab-


Before:

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After:

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We had decided that our “sausage” which is dialysis tubing is diffusion. It is diffusion because whenever the iodine reacted with the starch in the “sausage” it soaked in the chemicals. To explain when we began the lab the “sausage” had clear starch water in it. Then we filled the beaker with regular tap water, then we put iodine (which is a chemical element) into the water. We put enough in to turn the water a brownish color. Then we put the sausage into the beaker. We came back the next day to find that some of the iodine had went into the sausage, although there was still some iodine in the water.

For our two potato slices we decided it was osmosis. We had decided it was osmosis although each potato slice had a different outcome. For example Beaker one had the salt solution in the water. The salt solution had caused the water in the potato to leave the potato. This led up to rotting. The second beaker had regular tap water in it with a potato slice. The potato slice stayed good although it did sink to the bottom of the beaker. The potato slice stayed good because the solutions were equal.

Plant cell model


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Protists Lab


PARAMECIUM MULTIMICRONUCLEATUM
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The Paramecium Multimicronucleatum is commonly found throughout the world in fresh and marine water containing bacteria and decaying matter. Paramecium also live in aquatic environments, usually in stagnant, warm water. The front/top of Paramecium is rounded but the back/bottom of it is more pointed.The size of the Paramecium Multimicronucleatum is 37.5 um.
Source: http://webhome.broward.edu/~ssimpson/JMDelvecchio-Paramecium.htm

SPIROSTOMUM
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The Spirostomum consumes and feeds on bacteria. They can be mainly found in pond water and can grow large enough to be seen by the naked eye.The Spirostomum has the fastest contraction known in a living cell because it can contract its body into 1/4 of its size in 6-8 milliseconds. The size of the Spirostomum is 375 um.
Source:http://www.freebase.com/view/en/spirostomum

STENTOR
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Stentor are named for a Greek hero in the Trojan War who’s voice was said to sound like a trumpet. This is fitting because the organism s shaped like a trumpet. It is also one of the largest protozoa found in water. Stentor can grow up to 2mm long and can usually be seen with the naked eye. Protozoa are single celled organisms.
The size is 600 um.
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Stentor.aspx

Cell Size Lab

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ANALYSIS QUESTIONS

1. Comparing and Contrasting the 3 Cubes:
Something that was alike between the cubes is that they had the same rate of diffusion in them. Something different between the cubes was that the diffusion got closer into the middle of the smaller ones due to the size of the cube.

2. The “cell” that seemed to be most efficient would have been the small 1x1x1 cube. Even though the rate of diffusion was the same in all 3 cubes, due to the size of the smallest cube the sodium hydroxide diffused almost the whole way into the middle. While the least efficient cube was the large 3x3x3 cube. Due to its size the diffusion didn’t go into the middle as far as the other cubes.

3. The calculation that seems to explain what we observed in the cell models was the volume. I think the volume explained it because the volume tells how much space is being occupied on the inside of the cell. If the volume is greater then the sodium hydroxide would have to diffuse farther into the cell to reach the center.

4. If the cell size is larger, then the efficiency of diffusion is less.

Catalase Lab

Room Temperature-
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Cold temperature-
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Warm temperature-
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Questions:

  1. breakdown of hydrogen peroxide equation:
2H2O2 -> 2H2O+O2


2. Catalase belongs to the protein group. Members of this group are enzymes that all catalyze.

3. Yes, it is possible o reuse biomolecules like catalase unless the biomolecule has been denatured. Then it will stop working.

4. As the temperature increased from cold to hot hydrogen peroxide, the potato, and ground beef’s reaction stayed the same, but the liver’s reaction increased, and the bean’s reaction decreased.

5. If biomolecules like catalase become useless, the organism will not function properly. The organism would not be able to break down or digest substances because the molecules wouldn’t be able to come together to break down food.

How many drops of water can fit on a penny?

Observation:
Soapy water didn't form a bubble like the tap water did. The tap water held a lot more water on the penny then the the penny with the soapy water did. As soon as the water with the soap reached the edge of the penny it ran off.

Estimations:
Soapy Water- 10 drops
Regular Water- 15 drops

Data:
Soapy Water: 15, 14, 11, 16; The average was 14.
Regular Water: 31, 29, 29, 25; The average was 28.5.

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Penny containing soapy water.

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Penny containing regular tap water.

Light Intensity Activity

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In order to get the best possible conditions for making the maximum number of ATP you need less wavelength and brighter light intensity. We believe the best conditions are to have a wavelength of 425 and the light intensity of 200. This creates a 100% of maximum ATP. This makes 10 ATP every minute. The higher the light intensity the maximal ATP is produced. The ATP is then used to help make and produce food through photosynthesis.

Chromatography Lab

Logan and Sarah H:
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Yellow pigment = 0.75 RF
Green pigment = 0.25 RF
2 Pigments

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5 Pigments
Team Earl:
Light green = .5 RF
1 Pigment
Team Flowers:
Yellow = .8 RF
Green = .9 RF
Yellow/Green = .1 RF
3 Pigments

Conclusion Statement:
By observing other groups data as well as our own, we came to conclusion that the leaves we tested do not contain the same kind of chlorophyll and pigments. We know this because the leaves colors, shades, and RF value were not the same. We also know this because a different leaf was tested for every group. The same leaf wasn't used among the groups, so therefore the results are going to be different. There was a variety of results and pigment colors.