Thumb War Infographic | | Twig Lab | Monocot and Dicot Lab | Characteristics of Life | Onion Cell | Cheek Cell | Cell Transport | Cell Model | Protist | Euglena | Paramecium | Daphnia | Cell Size Lab | Catalase Lab | How much water can fit on a penny? | Light Intensity Activity | Chromatography Lab

Members
Zane D.
Kameron R.
Braden N.
Keegan F.



Thumb War Infographic


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Twig Lab


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  1. Our one twig is two years and our other twig is five years old.
  2. Growth does not occur at the same rate each year for both our trees.
  3. This happened because they got different amounts of nutrients each year.
  4. Each node has two leaf scars.
  5. They are both opposite.
  6. For each growing season there are three nodes.
  7. Yes, the same number of nodes are produced each growing season.
  8. Yes, the leaf scars have the same number of bundle scars and the arrangement is the same.
  9. It is a raised, circular area located between the nodes.
  10. The lenticels exchange gases.



Monocot and Dicot Lab


Corn Seed


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I could find one young leaf the corn seed There was one leaf seed. The seed coat is the outer shell of the corn.
This is also monocot

Bean Seed


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No because the bean was split into two pieces and was held together by the coating while the corn seed was all one seed and wasn’t split.
This is a dicot

Split Pea Seed


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It is a monocot because it has one cotyledon.

Stem Slides

Monocot
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Dicot
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The difference between monocots and dicots are the arrangement of their vascular tissues, dicots have cortexes and monocots don't, and their piths are slightly different. The purpose of the xylem is to carry nutrients and water; phloem carry glucose which is the food of the plant. The pith is tissue that stores nutrients and is the growth of the plant. The cortex is the outside layer of the stem and contains vascular tissue. The outer most part is the epidermis which helps protect from outside things.

Herbaceous and Woody Plants


Herbraceous Plants: plants that have little or no woody tissue
  • Monocot examples: Lemon Grass and Ginger
  • Dicot examples: Buttercups and Turnsole

Woody Plants: plants that use wood as their structure.
  • Monocot examples: Mountain Cabbage Tree and the Green Alder
  • Dicot examples: Maples and Sycamores

Characteristics of Life

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1. Why did the bromothymol blue change colors when a classmate exhaled into the test tube?

It turned yellow because the carbon dioxide we exhale turns the bromothymol blue yellow.

2. What does the production of carbon dioxide gas in the one flask indicate about the yeast?

That the yeast is eating the sugar in the molasses to create energy for itself and the result is carbon dioxide which goes into the bromothymol blue and turns it yellow.

3. How can you be sure that the carbon dioxide gas was produced by the yeast?

We are sure that it’s the yeast because the yeast because it is the only thing in there that does respiration which creates carbon dioxide.

4. What does the presence of buds indicate about the yeast?

It is budding which means that it is reproducing asexually to ensure the survival of its species.

5. Why were more buds present in one of the mixtures?

More buds are present in flask c because the yeast had the molasses to feed on there for they were more reproductive.


Onion Cell

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This is a picture of an onion cell died with iodine


The onion cell measures 150 um.

1. The shapes of the cells are rectangular and arranged in a brick like pattern as you can see in the picture above.

2.When we added the salt solution we noticed that the cells started to look like they were decaying or rusting. We think this happened because when we added the salt solution the salt is sucking the water out of the cells, causing the membrane to shrink, so it looked like it was rusting at the end of it.

Cheek Cell

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Cell Transport

Diffusion
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Potato_Osmosis

Cell Model


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Protist


Euglena

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There are over 1000 species of euglena. Also it has a photosensitive eyespot, which is sensitive to light. Plus it does not have a cell wall but a pellicle made of protein. The cell size=47 um
Citations:

http://www.amazingfacts.in/2010/06/amazing-facts-euglena.html

Paramecium


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Despite its small size, Paramecium is the most agile of the paramecia. It also feeds on the bacteria of decaying matter. Plus it is part of the phylum Ciliophora. cell size is 137 um.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daphnia

Daphnia


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Daphnia are commonly called water fleas. They can also live in a wide range of areas. Plus they live relatively short, 29 to 108 days depending on temperature. cell size is 500 um.
http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/parameci.html

Cell Size Lab


Cube size
Area of cube
Volume of cube
Surface area to volume ratio
Distance of diffusion
Rate of diffusion
3x3
54 cm3
27 cm3
2:1
½ cm.
.05 cm.. a minute
2x2
24 cm2
8 cm3
3:1
½ cm.
.05 cm. a minute
1x1
6 cm2
1 cm3
6:1
½ cm.
.05 cm. a minute

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1. Compare and contrast the three cubes after they were sliced in half.
A comparison is that when we put the sodium hydroxide in the beaker it soaked in ½ a centimeter for all of them. A difference is that, even though they all soaked in the same amount, some of them covered more of the block due to the different sizes.

2. Which "cell" seemed to be most and least efficient at getting outside substances into the cell? Explain.
The least efficient was the largest one because it had so much area to soak into. The most efficient was the smallest because it had so little to soak through that it just went in very easily.

3. Which of your calculations seems to explain what you observed in your cell models? Why do you think so?
We think that the ratios explain what we saw in our cell models. The reason why we think this is, is that the certain ratio that the cube has means how efficient it is at diffusing. For example, the smallest one was the only one that diffused completely. Its ratio was 6:1. The largest one barely diffused at all. Its ratio was 2:1. As you can see the higher the first number is, the more efficient it is at diffusing. The reason why this is, is that for every 6 molecules there is on the outside of the smaller block, they feed one molecule on the inside. This makes diffusion very fast. When there are barely any molecules on the outside it makes diffusion slower.

4. Speculate on a relationship between cell size and efficiency. Your statement should resemble a hypothesis. (Remember: Use an If....., then..... statement.)
If the agar specimen is smaller then it will be more efficient.

Catalase Lab

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Room temperature test subjects.

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Cold temperature test subjects.

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Hot temperature test subjects.

  1. Write the equation for the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. 2 H202>2 H20 + 02
  2. What large group of biomolecules (carbohydrate, lipid, or protein) does catalase belong to? What do members of this group have in common? Catalase belongs to the group. Members of this group help breakdown materials and make the organism better
  3. Is it possible to reuse biomolecules like catalase? Explain. Catalase are enzymes. Since enzymes cannot be broken down, it is reused and recycled.
  4. How did the amount of reaction change between room temperature, warm, and cold hydrogen peroxide? Some of them did not change, but in some like the liver as it got warmer the bubbles rose. I think the warmer the circumstances, the higher the bubbles get.
  5. What happens to an organism if biomolecules like catalase become useless? Explain. It disrupts the chemical functions of the body and slows us down greatly. We would not be able to function without biomolecules since they run all of our reactions in our body.


How much water can fit on a penny?

Normal water: we hypothesized that 14 water droplets would be on the penny. We were way off in that we could fit 32 water droplets on it until the water fell off.
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observations: notice how the water stays in a half sphere shape and stays perfectly on the penny. we also noticed that if you put the drop on the side of the existing water on the penny it will cause it to break.
Data: 1st time: 30 drops
2nd time: 34 drops
3rd time: 35 drops
4th time: 29 drops
average= 32

Soapy Water: We hypothesized that we would fit 8 drops on the penny. Our average ended being 14.25.soapypenny.jpg
observations: the soap did not last nearly as long as the normal water did. We think this is because of the soap particles were interfering with the bond of adhesion and cohesion.
Data:1st time: 21
2nd time:11
3rd time: 14
4th time: 11
average= 14.25


Light Intensity Activity

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light intensity is how you can measure light in the area.
wavelength is the spatial period of visible light that is depicted by the human eye.
ATP is produced in photosynthesis through light reactions and dark reactions.


Chromatography Lab

Leaf #1

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This leaf had only one pigment. The Rf factor of the Green pigment is .69.

Leaf #2

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This leaf also only had one pigment. The pigment is a Green one and has a Rf factor of .82.

Conclusion

By the data we and others collected, we concluded that some plants have similar pigments and chlorophyll while others are completely different. In the tests above it is clear that the pigments are very different because the first one had and Rf factor of .69 and the second one had an Rf factor of .82. Other tests of other groups had totally different pigments such as red and yellow. Although, some groups had Rf factors very close to our second tests. In conclusion, some plants have similar pigments while others are completely different.