| About Me | Red Oak | Osage Orange | Biomolecules in Food | Enzymes | Biomolecules Infographic | Food Issue Infographic | Photosynthesis Infographic | DNA Extraction from Human Cheek Cell | DNA Replication | DNA Infographic | Genetic and Infectious Diseases

About Me

Photo_on_2011-12-20_at_22.12.jpg

Hi, my name is Anna.
This year I am a freshman.
I play many sports including softball, basketball, and soccer.
In my spare time I like to hangout with my friends and watch movies.
I have 2 sisters and 1 brother.

Red Oak

The scientific name for the red oak is Quercus ruba.
The red oak is related to the white oak tree.
It is classified as deciduous because its leaves shed in the fall.
Red oak trees are pointed lobed, simple pinnate, and have alternate leaves.
They are 60 to 80 ft. tall. The leaves are normally green but in the fall they turn red.
Also the red oak has a wide crown shape.
The red oak tree is used for shade, flooring, millwork, tool handles, plywood, and barrels or storing dry goods.
450px-Image_Northen_Red_Oak_Dresden06.JPG
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quercus_rubra

Osage Orange

The scientific name for the osage orange is Maclura pomifera.
The osage orange tree is related to the Moraceae family.
It is classified as deciduous.
Osage orange leaves are smooth, simple, and alternate.
You can identify the osage orange by its rounded crown, round pale green fruit, and its twigs have thorns.
The fruit is sometimes used to deter spiders, cockroaches, crickets, and fleas. The heavy, yellow-orange wood is prized for tool handles, bows, and fence posts.

450px-Maclura_pomifera2.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maclura_pomifera

Biomolecules in Food


In the biomolecules lab the class tested different foods to understand what foods have proteins, fats and oils, and carbohydrates such as simple sugars and starch. The food I tested was ground beef. First, I tested for simple sugars. To test for simple sugars I used Benedict's solution. I put one dropper full of the ground beef in a test tube along with one dropper full of Benedict's solution. If the substance turned yellow/orange/red simple sugars were present; however, if the substance remained a blue color simple sugars were absent. My results showed that simple sugars were absent in the ground beef. Next, I tested for starch using iodine, an indicator for starch. I put a dropper full of ground beef in a test tube along with 5 drops of iodine. If starch was present the color of the substance would change from orange to blue/purple. If starch was absent the substance would stay an orange/brown color. The substance did not change color, therefore starch was absent in the ground beef.
After I tested for the carbohydrates I began to test for proteins and fats. First, I tested proteins. If proteins were present in the ground beef the color would change from blue to mauve. I placed a dropper full of ground beef and a dropper full of Biuret solution in a test tube. After about 2 minutes the color of the substance changed to mauve, therefore protein was present in the ground beef. Next, I tested for fats and oils. I placed a half a dropper of ground beef in the test tube. Then I put 5 drops of Sudan IV stain in the test tube. Fats and oils were present if there was a deep red color at the interface of the food substance. From my results I concluded that fats were present in ground beef.
Another person in my group tested milk. It was present in proteins and fats, but absent in simple sugars and starch.

FOOD
SIMPLE SUGAR
STARCH
FAT & OILS
PROTEIN

Absent
Present
Absent
Present
Absent
Present
Absent
Present
Cannelini Beans
8
0
0
8
3
5
1
7
Liver
7
2
4
5
0
9
0
9
Egg White
9
0
9
0
9
0
0
9
Avocado
3
7
2
8
0
10
7
3
Potato
8
0
0
8
8
0
2
6
Milk
7
0
7
0
1
6
0
7
Peas
8
2
3
7
10
0
6
4
Banana
0
8
4
4
4
4
4
4
Apple
0
9
6
3
9
0
4
5
Egg Yolk
5
4
4
5
0
9
0
9
Ground beef
6
0
5
1
0
6
0
6
Lettuce
7
0
6
1
7
0
7
0
*the numbers represent how many people got that result
Some results from each class were different. Some said starch was present in egg yolks and some said starch was absent in egg yolks. The ground beef results were the most accurate; only one person tested differently.

I was surprised that avocados have a lot of fat because I thought they were good for you. I was also surprised that egg whites have only protein. I always thought every part of the egg has fat in it. I am also surprised that lettuce doesn't have sugars, starch, proteins, or fats in it. It tested absent in everything. I thought lettuce would at least have starch in it because it is a vegetable.

Based on my research of nutritional fact for bananas, fats, proteins, and starch should be present. Also apples should have no fat and no protein.
http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/fruits-and-fruit-juices/1846/2
http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/fruits-and-fruit-juices/1809/2

Enzymes


What are catalysts?
Catalysts are biological substances that help complex reactions occur everywhere in life.

What is the importance of enzymes for living beings?
The purpose of enzymes is to speed up reactions.

Is there a difference between the initial and the final energy levels in catalyzed and non-catalyzed reactions?
The catalysis doesn’t change the energetic state of reactants and products of a chemical reaction. Only the energy need for the reaction to occur is altered. A non-catalyzed reaction requires more activation energy than a catalyzed reaction.

Why can it be said that the enzymatic action is highly specific?
Enzymatic action is said to be highly specific because each enzyme is given a specific chemical reaction and each enzyme has a specific job.

Describe a reaction without the presence of an enzyme and then with an enzyme.
A reaction without the presence of an enzyme would take longer to occur. A reaction with an enzyme will occur faster.

Biomolecules Infographic

Screen_shot_2012-01-09_at_10.13.43_AM.png

Food Issue Infographic

Screen_shot_2012-01-09_at_10.30.24_AM.png

http://compfight.com/search/muscles/1-0-1-1
http://compfight.com/search/protein-bars/1-0-1-1
http://www.mediweightlossclinics.com/press/release/223-protein-bars-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly/

Photosynthesis Infographic

bioinfrographicpic.png

tree- http://compfight.com/search/tree/1-0-1-1
leaf- http://compfight.com/search/leaf/1-0-1-1

DNA Extraction from Human Cheek Cell

Did everyone in your group have about the same extraction results? Why is this the case? How is the amount of DNA that you extracted affected by your day to day activities?
No, not everyone in my group had the same extraction results. This is because we each have different DNA. Also the results could be different if you added the acohol to quickly. When you pour the acohol too fast it doesn’t make two layers therefore your DNA will be very hard to see, if it even shows. Many other factors that could affect the results are what you ate for lunch, what you had to drink, if you have braces, if you chewed gum, and the amount of Gatorade you swished in your mouth. These everyday activities such as chewing gum, brushing your teeth, eating, and drinking can affect the amount of DNA extraction.

DNA Replication



There are many steps to DNA replication. The first step requires an enzyme called helicase to break the hydrogen bonds, which are bonds that hold the nucleotides together. Breaking the hydrogen bonds will then split the DNA and the two strands unwind. Now, that the DNA is split we can move onto the second step. A single stranded binding protein is used to keep the strands of DNA apart. After this we can move onto the third step. An enzyme called primase is required. Primase gives the DNA strands a starting point. The enzyme called polymerase comes in the fourth step. This is the enzyme that replicates DNA. It joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA. After polymerase does its job, replication is completed and you have two complete strands of DNA.

DNA Infographic

Screen_shot_2012-02-13_at_4.26.30_PM.png
Screen_shot_2012-02-13_at_4.26.41_PM.png
Screen_shot_2012-02-13_at_4.27.01_PM.png

bird picture-
http://animalszooguru.blogspot.com/2011/01/birds-desktop-wallpapers-bird-beautiful.html

Genetic and Infectious Diseases

Screen_shot_2012-04-18_at_9.40.03_PM.pngScreen_shot_2012-04-18_at_9.40.44_PM.pngScreen_shot_2012-04-18_at_9.41.19_PM.pngScreen_shot_2012-04-18_at_9.41.35_PM.pngScreen_shot_2012-04-18_at_9.41.51_PM.png